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The purpose of this document is to illustrate how to create a simple device server based on ACS. A C++ example is developed step-by-step and the implementation is explained (note: the example code is taken from the ACS software module "acsexmpl" with very few modifications).
This document neither explains architecture in depth, nor the low-level communication between the device server and the physical device. However, it is advisable to get in-depth acquaintance with concepts of the Basic Control Interface, as described in detailed technical document (BACI specification *\[R01\]* and other documents, specified in References).
Note: these instructions are written for programming under UNIX. Programming under MS Windows does not differ very much, but there are some minor changes.
Basic Control Interface
Common Object Request Broker Architecture
Interface Definition Language
Management and Control Interface
ACS Basic Control Interface Specification
Management and Access Control Interface Specification
Definition of BACI types for ACS1.1 ([http://kgb.ijs.si/KGB/Alma/Specs/Definition_of_BACI_Types_for_ACS1.1.pdf
Logging and Archiving ([http://kgb.ijs.si/KGB/Alma/Specs/Logging_and_Archiving.pdf
Advanced CORBA Programming with (Henning, Vinoski)
C++ Programming Language Third Edition (Stroustrup)
ACS Software Module "acsexmpl"
CDB Tutorial ([http://kgb.ijs.si/KGB/Alma/Docs/CDB.pdf
First, we need to know what kind of a device (actually Component) we are writing a device server for. Is it a giant motor, which rotates telescopes, simple power supply, device which throws baked pieces of bread out of a toaster, or an object, residing only on the network, which does something useful? Our part of writing a device server should actually not distinguish much; only variable and method names should be different.
Maybe also the types of variables (double, pattern, read-only, etc.) and methods (synchronous and asynchronous), but that should be all. We have to now consider properties that our Component will maintain and also all possible actions. For example: a simple power supply.
Note that in order to change the status, one can not simply change the value of a bit; e.g. to change from OFF to ON, the command on() has to be called explicitly (see below). And the transition from NO-ALARM to ALARM is completely out of the user's hands – an alarm is an external event, for example a burned fuse, a high temperature, etc. For this reason, it will be ROpattern.
Note: A property is described by more data than just its value. There are also limits (maxValue and minValue), some describing text (name, description, units) and other relevant data. They are called characteristics. Such data are constants and are usually read from the configuration database.
(If you are using ALMA directory structure, IDL files should be located in <xxxx>/ws/idl or the <xxxx>/idl directory.)
Having defined the device we are now able to write the Component's interface. For this, Interface Definition Language is used. An IDL file is a list of all methods and properties that are needed to describe an interface between client and server.
It looks like this (note: code marked with bold should be adapted for new applications):
Because we use RW/ROdouble, ROpattern, and other BACI components, we have to include baci.idl.
This is necessary for all alma interfaces so they will have the correct location within the Interface Repository.
And now the creation of a new module, with the name PS. A module is (by ESO specifications) a part of code, which rounds up some functionality (same as package in Java and namespace in C++).
Interface (like a class in C++) is a defined collection of methods and properties, specific for one object. One module can contain many interfaces with some common characteristics.
When we are defining actions, we must write its arguments and what it returns. Every asynchronous action must have "in ACS::CBvoid cb, in ACS:CBDescIn desc". Note that beside arguments there is also a word "in". Here is short explanation of all possibilities (from Advance CORBA programming with C++):
Here we define our properties as read-only attributes, which are read-only because we do not want someone to change them uncontrollably.
When finished writing an IDL, the file must be "compiled" by an IDL compiler. In the ACS environment, you can simply use the acsMakefile, but this will be discussed later. At this point there is no actual need to compile the IDL since the client and servant stubs (generated by TAO from the IDL) never even need to be viewed to write the C++ class!
The Configuration Database uses these files so that distributed objects can be instantiated with pre-configured data for their properties. More about how this is done can be found in the Configuration Database and XML Schemas for Configuration Database documents.
For the PowerSupply Component we need to create three different XML files containing:
While a running system can have many XML files describing the configuration data for a particular instance of a Component, there can be only one XML schema per Component, defining the structure and all default values for the configuration of that Component type.
We will describe the case of the power supply component as it is in the acsexmpl module. This description is often considered a bit hard to understand at a first glance. As we said before we kindly suggest to read all the CDB documentation before proceeding. If you do not have time at the moment, we have added, at the end of this chapter, the case of the mount example that is simpler then the power supply. With the mount example we aim to help the developers in speeding up the process of creating new components. For the mount component, you should at least have a look on its IDL interface.
On the other hand the mount component example is not enough to fully understand the interactions between xml, xsd in the CDB. A good idea could be that of fully understand the case of the mount then read again this chapter to extend your knowledge with the power supply example.
1 & 3
This is the namespace we will be using for PowerSupply. It is arbitrary but should include the name of the Component.
The namespace that was used for BACI and CDB. These urns are not arbitrary and can be found by looking in $ACSROOT/config/CDB/schemas/*.
Please see 4-5.
These rows describe the type of the record in the xml file. The user is free to customize this complex type in order to add specific information (see CDB documentation for further information about this issue).
Here we just specify that current is of type RWdouble and readback is a ROdouble. Nothing else needs to be specified because these are simple types already defined in BACI.xsd.
Since status is a ROpattern (which is a complex type), minimal attributes have been specified in BACI.xsd. Because of this, it is necessary to specify a pattern or enum's attributes since they will not change for any Component instantiated from this schema.
We specify that the xml contain one record of the same name of the component. The type of the record is PowerSupplyType defined above (see 10-38)
The xml files are parsed against their schema definition. In PowerSupply.xsd the PowerSupply is defined to be of PowerSupplyType. By customizing the PowerSupplyType, the PowerSupply.xml will be accordingly different. If the developer would add some custom field to the configuration of the power supply, in the PowerSupply.xml file, he also has to change its schema definition. We suggest having a look on the CDB documentation about that. The acsexmplFilterWheel shows an example of a customized xsd/xml for a generic filter wheel.
This xml file describes the deployment information for components.
The namespace used by MACI Components as defined in $ACSROOT/config/CDB/schemas/maciCOB.xsd
Please see 4-5 of the schema.
We must specify Component information used by Manager for each Component instance in the Configuration Database. That is, if we want to be able to use two PowerSupply objects named TEST_PS_1 and TEST_PS_2: entries containing the name of the PowerSupply shared library, Container that will instantiate each object, etc must exist in Components.xml
Name of the Component instance, which is also the name of the XML file containing the configuration data for said Component instance.
Specify the name of the Power Supply shared library that will be loaded by Container here.
Location of Power Supply's IDL interface within the interface repository. PS corresponds to the module name the PowerSupply interface is located within (inside acsexmplPowerSupply.idl). PowerSupply is simply the name of the interface to be used and 1.0 is version number of that interface.
The name of the Container, which will activate this CORBA object.
Notice we have specified acsexmplPSOptimized, which is a shared library for Power Supply that has been compiled with all optimizations turned on (or even the source code for PowerSupply could be optimized). This is useful when you have a real-time system where every clock cycle counts, but for development you wouldn't normally want to deal with the extra compile time. Finally, note that TEST_PS_2's Container is different from TEST_PS_1. Use this when you want to take CPU overhead off of one Container (i.e., PC) and place it on another.
In this example we want to override some of the default values. One way to obtain that is to define a schema derived from the PowerSupply type. Another way might be that of customizing the xml definition. In this example we prefer to define a new schema as the same changes will be automatically propagated to all the power supply components.
We have defined the following schema that extends the PowerSupply.xsd Here you can find only a parte of the whole file. You can find the complete file in $ACS_CDB/CDB/schemas/TestPowerSupplyACS.xsd..
2 & 26
The schema defines the TestPowerSupplyACS
Import the CDB and the BACI schemas
Import the PowerSupply schema that we will extend.
Define the type TestPowerSupplyACS
Define the TestPowerSupplyACS to be of PowerSupply type
Define the current property
The current property is a RWdouble property
Redefine all the attributes of the property.
Define the xml element to be of the type defined here (we use the same name for both the elment and the type here but they can be different as shown in the PowerSupply.xsd)
2 & 26
PowerSupplyACS corresponds to the name specified on line 44 of the XML schema and the schema namespace is also used here.
Please see 4-5 of the schema.
current, readback and status properties are defined in TestPowerSupplyACS schema.
We are aware that the power supply example is a bit complicated because we wanted to show how to override some of the default values for the properties. In the acsexmpl module there are several different examples. We briefly show also the case of the CDB configuration files for the mount component example. The mount has for read-only double properties, as you can read in its IDL definition file.
The schema for the mount component See acsexmple/ws/config/CDB/schemas/MOUNT.xsd. is:
The schema definition
The name space schema defines
The type the schema defines
The sequence with the four read-only properties (see the IDL definition file)
Defines the element of the xml file to be of the same type defined in line 10
As expected, the xml defining each component is also very simple:
The element is of type MOUNT as stated in line 18 of the schema definition
Import schemas and definitions
The four properties as stated in line 12-15 of the schema. Their type and default values are argued by the schema definition
(If you are using ALMA directory structure, header files should be located in the <xxxx>/ws/include or <xxxx>/include directory).
Let us now create the C++ header file for the device server. Later, this file has to be included in the implementation file (.cpp). There is not much to do here – you first have to write a standard file header and then make the corresponding "#include"s for all of the properties you will use:
For ACS Component with characteristic or properties usage, the baciCharacteristicComponentImpl.h file is needed. acsexmplExport.h is used for exporting this example to the Microsoft Windows environement. Also, acsexmplPowerSupplyS.h is automatically generated with tao_idl (it has the same name as the IDL with an "S" appended at the end) and header files for all properties that are used (baciROdouble.h and baciROpattern.h) must be included.
The baciSmartPropertyPointer.h file includes the declaration for the smart pointers. They help to write the component in a clear and reliable way. The following example is written using smart pointers but it is also possible to use the properties without even if we suggest using the smart pointers with properties.
Asynchronous call handling implementation requires that action numbers are defined for each call (here on(), off() and reset()).
PowerSupply must inherit from the class CharacteristicComponentImpl because the IDL interface does, ActionImplementator for asynchronous methods, and POA_<name of module in IDL>::<name of interface in IDL> which is auto-generated by tao_idl. The CharacteristicComponentImpl class incorporates standard methods and macros necessary for the CORBA interface implementation and MACI-DLL support.
Now we can define public methods and fields (note: because of inheritance, you should put virtual before the destructor and other methods):
The private fields usually consist of all variables that are in the program. We use a smart pointer for each property. The type of each smart pointer is a template based on the type of the related property. The smart pointers for the properties take care of all the CORBA detail in behalf of the developer making the programming of a device server easier, faster and safer.
The execute method is part of the life cycle methods. Ther are four methods for the life cycle. They are defined in acscomponent and can be overridden by the developer.
The intialize method is called by the container after instantiating the component i.e. after executing the constructor. The developer should insert here all the code related to the initialization of the component like, for example retrieve connections, read in configuration files orparameters, build up in-memory tables and so on. This method is called before any functional requests can be sent to the component.
The execute method is called by the container after the initialize to signal that the server has to be ready to accept functional requests.
The developer in the execute and the initializecan throw an exception to signal a malfunction to the container. In this case the exception is catched by the container and the component will be released and unloaded.
The aboutToAbort is called by the container in case of an error and an emergency sistuation requests the component to be destroyed. The developer should insert here the code to handle this situation trying to release resources and so on. This method is called in an emergency situation and there is no warranty that the container will wait its termination before destroying the component.
Finally, the cleanUp method is called by the container before destroying the server in a normal situation. The developer should release all the reasource and perform all the clean up here.
As a guideline, we suggest to leave the constructor and the destructor of the server empty moving the code in the life cycle method. This should help in writing more reliable servers.
There is no need to call the parent life cycle method
In the power supply component, execute is the only life cycle method overridden.
Together with the life cycle methods there is the concept of the state of the component i.e. the component passes through different states during its life, since it is built until it is destroyed. The state is transparent to the user and managed by the ComponentStateManager object that is part of the ContainerServices. The state of the component is managed by the container and must not be accessed nor modified by the developer. For completeness I report here the states that a component can assume, as defined in acscomponent.idl:
This is the initial state of the component
When the component is executing the initialize method
When the initialize method terminates
When the execute method terminates
An error occurred
Before executing the cleanUp method
Before executing the aboutToAbort method
Before destroying the component
(If you are using ALMA directory structure, implementation files should be located in <xxxx>/ws/src or <xxxx>/src directory.)
Tao has already generated some files needed for client-server communication, but now we have to implement our device server. I will divide the C++ file into smaller parts and explain each of them. The beginning of the program is pretty much standard, so I will just write about unusual lines. (Note: code marked with bold should be adapted for new applications):
Because you are using BACI with database access, you have to include baciDB.h. The third include is a header file for this program, usually with same name, but ending with .h instead of .cpp.
Now we have to write a constructor:
A class constructor is always the method with the name of the class.
In the constructor we create properties. Their names must be composed of the name of the server and property name (for example: TestPowerSupply1:current). In property constructor you must also provide a reference to the component. Here the getComponent() method (inherited from CharacteristicComponentImpl) is used to obtain the Component reference. Every Component has its own instance, which takes care of threads (dispatching). It must have a name and it's Unique Identification Number (UID). UID should always be the same (even when server is restarted) and it will be read from local database. There may not be two servers with the same name and/or same UID!
The created property is assigned to the smart pointer. This step is necessary if the smart property is created without a pointer to a property in the constructor (see row 5).
The destructor is empty. The entire cleanup for the properties is managed by the smart pointers.
Let us come to actions now. All requests for asynchronous actions go through the Activator, which sends this request back to the device server. This is done through the invokeAction() method, where you define what has to be done when a call is received:
The implementation of the functions we defined in the previous method:
Here comes real implementation of the action – like communication with physical device, setting it on, off, etc. (for example: a devIO->write(...)). If action will not be completed in descIn.timeout or action is slow in progress, you should first return "working" (return reqInvokeWorking) and also set estimated timeout (descOut.estimated_timeout) (more about it in [R02], part 184.108.40.206).
To inform client about possible errors, set completion (read [R02], part 3.2). In this case everything is ok and we set completion to OkCompletion.
When action is completed, return done (return reqInvokeDone).
We have to describe the device server’s actions (like on(), off(), reset()). These are asynchronous (usually they take some time and we do not want to block a client while executing) so we have to register the action to the Activator that will then do the rest of the procedure. For example, calling on() will just register that action inside a queue until Activator calls PowerSupply::invokeAction which will in turn, call onAction().
The client must provide a pointer to it’s implementation of callbacks and the structure of type CBDescIn (that identifies the callback) as an argument of the registerAction() method. Our device server sends these parameters to Activator and also adds a pointer to itself and a description of an action (integer – ON_ACTION will be replaced with 1, OFF_ACTION with 2 and so on).
Your job is to write one block of a code for each action and change only the last argument of the method registerAction – an integer which is later sent back to the device server, to the method invokeAction(). First argument of registerAction() method – in this case BACIValue::type_null – is a callback type.
throw(...) defines what kind of exceptions are available.
If a client wants to do something with current, readback, and other properties, it must get a reference to these properties. This is done in following code:
One must write accessors for every property, changing the name of a property (current), variable (m_current_sp) and type of a property (replace all fields where RWdouble appears with ROdouble or ROpattern).
Now we are really near the end. We have to add MACI DLL support functions. For this purpose we use the macro MACI_DLL_SUPPORT_FUNCTIONS(class_name):
As we said at the beginning of the paragraph, it is possible to use the properties without smart pointers even if we discourage this implementation. We briefly describe herein the changes in the previous code if smart pointers were not used.
In the include file each property is defined without the templetized smart pointer type and, of course, the baciSmartPropertyPointer.h is not needed. Note that the names of the variables terminate with _p and not with _sp to highlight that we are now using pointers instead of smart pointers.
In the constructor these pointers are first initialized to 0 then each property is created in the same way they are created with smart pointers. The CHARACTERISTIC_COMPONENT_PROPERTY macro must be implemented for each BACI property.
The macro performs error checking and generates a description of the property. This macro must not be used with smart pointers because they take care of all the initializations automatically.
The following is the constructor without using smart pointers for the properties.
Another difference is in the destructor because for each property we must call the destroy method but not the delete.
The rest of the code remains the same apart for the renaming of the variables.
As we saw writing the constructor of the component, it receives a pointer to a maci::ContainerServices object. Really, maci::ContainerServices is an interface and the component receives an implementation of that interface defined in the maci module. The developer is free to replace this default implementation with another one that better fits its needs.
Throw the ContainerServices object the Containers offers the component a set of services freeing the developer of the details of their implementation.
The getContainerServices() method returns a pointer to the container services object so there is no need to store the container services object received in the constructor in a local variable.
Here I report a brief description of the services of the default implementation of the ContainerServices in the maci module. For further details, have a look at the doxygen documentation.
Find out more about this in Logging and Archiving
To compile, please use the acsMakefile and the ALMA directory structure. All files should be in subdirectories of <xxxx>/ws/ or <xxxx>/, where <xxxx> represents the name of module. If you have made it this far, you should have these files (although the names should be different...):
Next, create a Makefile (or preferably just change the existing one). It should be located in: <xxxx>/src/Makefile
Since the acsMakefile is rather large and most targets will not be modified, I am going to write only the parts where something has to be written/changed.
Name of main header file – the one, which is described in this document:
The name, which is written behind “LIBRARIES =”, will be the name of the created library. For each library “<name of library>_OBJECTS” has to be defined:
Name of database configuration file:
Name of IDL file:
Then you have to run it:
make clean all man install
When the compiler finishes, it should create files lib<name of libraries>.so and .a (in our case libacsexmplPowerSupply.so and libacsexmplPowerSupply.a). When you use the “install” tag, binaries, libraries documentation files, etc., will be copied into the $INTROOTdirectory.
A number of insignificant details have been removed from the PowerSupply example in this document. For the most up-to-date and complete documentation, please go to http://www.eso.org/~gchiozzi/AlmaAcs/OnlineDocs/acsexmpl/ws/doc/html/index.html. This webpage also contains documentation on even more examples that can be found in the ALMA CVS repository (ACS/LGPL/CommonSoftware/acsexmpl/*).